Physiological changes of the blood system in athletes during exercise
In sports medicine, in addition to the study of the morphological composition of blood, currently widespread methods of studying the functional properties of leukocytes. The use of these methods allows us to study the metabolic processes occurring in the cell, and to identify enzymes involved in cellular metabolism. For example, the glycogen as an energy substance that provides propulsion, phagocytic, and other digestive ability of white blood cells. The number of athletes is the same as I do not do sports. However, in the acute and chronic fatigue, this figure is
significantly reduced. The change in the number of leukocyte glycogen after exercise also can serve as a criterion for evaluating the functional state of the athlete. If it is sufficiently high, then after the load, the amount of glycogen decreases, and if low, the ratio is not changed. Determination of alkaline phosphatase. peroxidase and RNA significantly helps sports physician in the examination of athletes. Great importance of these enzymes in the metabolism of cells, determines the need for their research, as they can be used to assess the changes that occur in the body during physical work.
By S. A. Yanovskaya (1970), there are 2 types of reactions peripheral blood in response to inadequate and adequate physical activity for athletes. If after the 1st in the blood is at phase 3 of the myogenic leukocytosis, decreased amounts of glycogen, activity of peroxidase and an increase in RNA, then after 2-these changes are not detected. The author believes that if an inadequate response is the depletion of myeloid reserve, but with adequate redistribution of blood in the transport system.
In a later work of A. S. Yanovsky (1985) proposed to use other indicators that may contribute to the timely detection of early signs of overstraining. In particular, we are talking about the definition of lactate dehydrogenase, dehydrogenase, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial α-glitserofosfatdegidrogenazy, etc.
For use as criteria of fatigue determination of peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase indicates V. N. The wolves (1971).
However, the picture changes in peripheral blood cannot be considered complete without taking into account the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin. The use of these indicators to assess the impact of exercise on the blood system traditionally. These studies were conducted by many authors. When examining athletes of different sports they show that under the influence of physical activity increases the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin. Some authors believe that this increase is due to the exit of blood from the depot, as well as thickening of the blood due to dehydration. This reaction is regarded as an indicator of well-trained athletes.
Along with data on the increase in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood during exercise, in the literature there is information about their reduction. According to A. N. Sparrows and M. S. Kireeva (1961), such a reaction is associated with a decrease in resistance of the formed elements, but mostly it occurs due to the receipt of tissue fluid into the blood stream due to the increase of chlorides in the blood due to sweating during muscular activity. Simultaneously comes the increase in the number of reticulocytes by increasing their production by the bone marrow as a result of stimulation of its breakdown products of red blood cells and enhanced maturation of erythroblasts in the bone marrow.
Thus, we can assume that the change of the pattern of peripheral blood can reflect the changes that occur in the athlete’s body in response to physical stress. Thus about its suitability for the implementation of the load can be judged by the degree of change in these indicators. However, as indicated above, the value of the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin depends on the ratio OCE and sspp, as changes to any of them they will significantly change. One of the first who pointed to the increase of BV under the influence of physical exercise in humans, E. Schneider, L. Havens (1915). J. Barcroft (1925) in animal experiments have established the presence in the spleen blood depot, from where it goes into the bloodstream during physical work. However, since the evaluation of peripheral blood is necessary to know not so much the BCC, how much value OCE and sspp, we need to briefly look at the last change.