Methods of improving speed endurance swimmer
Note. The nature of the load and rest is considered throughout performing exercises in one training session.
Under load we will understand the magnitude of the impact on the athlete’s body specific exercise. The load leads to energy consumption swimmer, tired of it. At the same time, it activates during the recovery processes, with sufficient rest provide accumulation of energy resources so as to
exceed the initial state (level “to work”).
Thus, rest, and load, as an essential factor contributing to the increase of fitness of the athlete.
I. Re method. Since the rest intervals between the individual parts of the exercise are set by the athlete’s health, the main training effect of this method depends on the total volume and load intensity.
Exercises with standard loads can be divided into two groups:
a) re the swimming segments and distances with a predetermined uniform speed. This is a good exercise involves the athlete in a job that allows him to acquire the necessary pace, technique stabilizes;
b) re the swimming segments with acceleration. This exercise not only develops speed endurance, but also fits the swimmer to new, more severe requirements.
Repeat the exercise with variable load as follows: 4X400 meters with a speed of 75, 80, 85, and 95% of the maximum or 75, 85, 80, 95%; 6X50 m 35, 34, 33, 34 35 and 36 sec. etc. Such exercises can assist in finding the best options technique, teach the athlete to accurately discern the slightest change in speed swimming, develop the ability not only to maintain the distance of a given rate, but also to be ready for all kinds of spurts.
II. Interval method. Its application is characterized in that the magnitude of the impact of exercise on the athlete’s body is determined by not only the total volume and intensity, and rest intervals between separate parts of the exercise (the overcoming of the intervals or distances).
The main variants of interval training include:
a) interval training as a method of planning the optimal mode to improve speed endurance. It is known that immediately after short-term high-speed operation (in swimming in segments of 25 and 50 m) in the first 30-90 seconds. creates favorable conditions for increasing the functionality of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems: decreased respiratory rate, increased minute oxygen consumption, reaches a maximum stroke volume of the heart. All this is because high-speed swimming of short lengths leads to relatively high oxygen debt, which, in turn, as if struggling in the intervals of leisure activity of the autonomic functions of the athlete. Therefore, the system of respiration and circulation during rest continues to operate with an optimal workload, at the same time, the musculoskeletal system of the athlete gets the opportunity to relax. This ensures a high training effect this version of interval method, especially if kept next mode of its application:
the duration of each part of the exercise (time proplyene one segment) should not exceed 1 min. the athlete may swim stretches up to 50-75 m;
rest intervals should be in the range of 30 to 90 sec.; swimming speed on segments should not fluctuate more than 85 to 95% of maximum;
b) interval training as a method significant impact on the athlete’s body. To this end the load and rest intervals between separate parts of exercises change in a wider range:
4—5X400 meters with an interval of 6 to 1 min.;
5—10X200 m intervals from 3 to 1 min.;
15—20X100 m with an interval of 1.5 min. to 30 sec.;
20—40X50 m intervals from 30 seconds to 15 seconds;
12—16X25 m intervals from 15 seconds to 5 seconds
Note. The majority of segments and distance prodlivaetsa at a rate equal to 80-95% of the maximum; the intervals of rest for this lesson plan permanent. With increasing fitness on subsequent workouts reduce them.
Not less strong impact on the athlete’s body have interval exercise in which each class change:
the nature and duration of the load of separate parts, and the intervals of rest remain constant. For example, 200 m + H m + 4X50 m + H m, the interval of rest between the exercise and each repetition is equal to 30 sec.;
the rest interval (decreases). For example, 6X200 m with recreation 6, 5, 4, 3 and 2 min.;
load and rest. For example, 2×200 m with an interval of 3 min + 4X100 m with an interval of 2 min., etc.
This mode of exercise activates glycolytic metabolism, creates favorable conditions for the development of speed endurance;
b) interval training as an exercise leading to the swimming of a basic distance. Usually it is used on the eve of any competition, when the athlete is important to stabilize the techniques to master the best option running the course and not to get too tired. To this end the distance to the surface of the parts with an average speed required for the testimony of the planned result for the whole distance.
For example, athlete training, specializing at the distance of 400 m, looks like this:
16—24X25 m intervals from 30 to 10 sec.;
8—12X50 m intervals from 45 seconds to 15 seconds;
4—6X100 m intervals from 60 to 20 sec.;
2—3X200 m intervals from 90 to 30 seconds.
III. Uniform method. In swimming, as in many other cyclic sports, to achieve truly high performance is of great importance is the ability of the athlete to properly distribute the forces and to overcome the distance with uniform speed. To solve this problem in practice is widely used uniform method of developing speed endurance (sometimes referred to as remote).
The essence of this method is simple: the athlete swims various distances in a uniform tempo and trying to keep a constant speed as in the beginning and in the middle and the end of the exercise. At first, the pace of swimming may be weak, but as you increase fitness more and more approaching to that required in swimming on the main track.
For the correct execution of the exercises uniform method coaches are graphs of distance, or their parts, is widely used conditional alarm, used auto leaders, offer their members to cover the distance with more experienced partners.
IV. AC method is characterized by alternating exercises in loads of different intensity or intensive exercise with active rest. For example, 800 m a variable rate to float it so:
(50 m 3/4 strength + 150 m in 1/2 strength) X 4 or (50 m 3/4 strength + 150 m fluent) X4, etc.
Such exercises configure all functions of the human body to a new, higher, level. Thereby significantly increasing the overall endurance of the athlete, and the skillful construction of the training process — the ability to maintain a high speed in swimming on the main track.
In vivo locomotor activity of the person is characterized by a variable intensity. Therefore, the athlete’s body better adapt to stress is of this nature.
AC method of developing speed endurance effective when training swimmers of different profiles, especially those who specialized in long distance. This is no accident — division exercises on parts that are performed with variable intensity, and part reserved for active recreation, smooths the impact of even the most “acute” speed load, due to which the body of the athlete cope with transferring large amount of load is better than in repeat and interval swimming.
V. The control method provides for routine swimming of a basic distance in training and in the series lead of the competition with the aim of finding the best for each athlete tactical options, high-speed development
endurance and the education of the will.
In addition to the main five methods are widely used in practice and other methods:
re-interval (4x100m at 3/4 power at intervals of 1 min + random rest) XS, etc.;
interval-AC (25 m 3/4 strength + 25 m freely + 10 sec. rest) X8;
re-AC (50 m 3/4 strength + 50 m freely + arbitrary rest) X4, etc.
The athlete’s body quickly adapts to the oft-repeated loadings, means, methods, and over time they begin to lose their effectiveness. Not by chance the best coaches expect the load waves, are resorting to various means and combine these methods for the development of speed endurance, highlighting at various stages of the training methods that best solve specific problems of a complex process of preparation of masters water track.