Load and rest as the most important elements of the impact of physical exercise on the human body.
Load regulation and its combination with the rest represent one of the most important foundations on which the use of physical exercises by solving a variety of problems in physical education.
Load in physical education is a quantitative measure of the impact of physical exercise on the body. .
Any load associated with the consumption of the body and fatigue. In turn, these processes inevitably result in the necessity of rest. During the holidays unfold the process of recovery. the intensity of which depends on the parameters of the load (the size). The greater the load (within limits), the more intense the recovery processes. Moreover, a living organism has a unique ability not only to fully restore spent energy, but also to sverhotstalostyu and improve, on this basis, health. This unique ability of a living organism and is the basis for the development of fitness, when the load, through fatigue leads to the restoration, sverhotstalostyu and increasing efficiency.
However, not every load leads to desired result. In order to know how to use it is necessary first of all to get an idea of characterizing concepts as: the amount and intensity of external and internal loads, standard and variable loads, continuous and interval load.
The notion of volume relates to the duration and total number of completed physical works.
The intensity is characterized by the impact load at each moment, the degree of tension of the functions.
Total load per session can be defined by the integral characteristics of its volume and intensity. Almost the total load is most often judged by its external parameters, for example, in cross – country exercises on the total mileage in the exercise – the number of approaches and total weight lifted in class, etc.
To determine the total intensity is most often used to calculate the “motor density” class, which represents the ratio of time spent performing exercises, to the total time of the lesson. .
It is important to know that between the limit values of the volume and intensity of load is inversely proportional relationship. This is clearly visible in practice. The maximum under the load of people able to accomplish in only a few seconds. For a time large amounts of load to achieve the impossible. At the same time, at a relatively low intensity of exercise you can achieve the limit of its volume, as the workload could last for hours. Therefore, in the limit load increase their intensity leads inevitably to the reduction of their total volume. This dependence is also reflected in the different ways of using physical exercises (in the methods of the exercises, which will be discussed in a special section of the Handbook)
The response of the body to certain external load is characterized by the corresponding load of the physiological and biochemical changes, which are the parameters of “internal loads”.
Between indicators of external and internal loads, there is a certain proportionality: more stress – more physiological changes and Vice versa. However, this relationship is observed only up to certain limits. Due to significant changes in the state of the organism ( for example, under the influence of previous loads) this proportionality can be broken. In this case, the same external parameters load can give a different effect, or Vice versa (when different values of the external load gives the same effect).
The peculiarity of the impact load depends on is it a standard (unchanged its external parameters) or variable ( changing in the course of the exercise).
The impact of physical exercise on the body depends on whether the load is in process of taking a continuous nature (permanent) or interval (intermittent).
Many, not privy to the subtleties of the effects of exercise on the human body, it seems that the rest, in comparison with the load, is a much less productive phenomenon. However, the practice of physical education easily refutes such views.
Rest is an essential part of different ways (methods) of the impact of physical exercise on the body.. He can be passive and active .
Passive recreation is a relative quiet, the lack of active motor activity. Active rest involves switching to any other activity, great and less stress than that which led to fatigue. In practice, both these forms of recreation are often combined, and more effective is this combination, when an active holiday is preceded by a passive.
Of particular importance is the duration of rest intervals. It is largely (often decisively) determines the direction and the loading efficiency when solving a specific task training.
There are three main types of rest intervals. ordinary, hard and extreme.
Ordinary is a range which ensures almost complete recovery by the time of impact another portion of the load. This allows you to repeat the work at no additional voltage functions.
Tough call this interval of rest, when the next load is on the period of nedoustanovlennoy individual functions or body in General. This is not necessarily accompanied by a loss of external load, but increases the tension of function and improvement of the parameters of “internal loads”.
Extreme call this a rest interval at which the next load coincides with the phase of increased health – phase supercompensation.
It is important to remember that the effect of using an interval of rest, fickle. It changes with increasing total load. Therefore, to achieve a permanent effect it is necessary to increase the intervals of rest, otherwise extreme interval will quickly become rather ordinary, and then in hard. Respectively, to change the nature and direction of the load, although its external parameters remain the same.
Thus, the material presented in this section suggests that the intervals of rest are as important as the impact on the body as the load. Their regulation significantly changes the effect from individual loads and the classes in General.
The most effective and affordable in the process of self-study can be considered the following methods of control of the load . associated with the change. the number of repetitions, the amplitude of the exercises, of the value of additional weights, resistance partner or magnitude of samoupravleniya, speed, pace and time of exercise, duration of stay and nature, the starting position and method of exercise.
It should also be remembered that adjusting the load you can use a combination of 2-3 of these techniques, as well as the fact that the load depends on the total amount completed in class and overall intensity. Therefore, an important indicator of the load should be considered and motor density classes.